U. Ritzinger, J. Puchinger, F. Hartl:
"Dynamic programming based metaheuristics for the dial-a-ride problem";
Annals of Operations Research, 236 (2014), 2; S. 341 - 358.

Kurzfassung englisch:
The organization of a specialized transportation system to perform transports for elderly and handicapped people is usually modeled as dial-a-ride problem. Users place transportation requests with specified pickup and delivery locations and times. The requests have
to be completed under user inconvenience considerations by a specified fleet of vehicles. In the dial-a-ride problem, the aim is to minimize the total travel times respecting the given time windows, the maximum user ride times, and the vehicle restrictions. This paper introduces a dynamic programming algorithm for the dial-a-ride problem and demonstrates ist effective application in (hybrid) metaheuristic approaches. Compared to most of the works presented in literature, this approach does not make use of any (commercial) solver. We present an exact dynamic programming algorithm and a dynamic programming based metaheuristic, which restricts the considered solution space. Then, we propose a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm which integrates the dynamic programming based algorithms into a large neighborhood framework. The algorithms are tested on a given set of benchmark instances from the literature and compared to a state-of-the-art hybrid large neighborhood search approach.

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