P. Morthorst, J. Page, R. Schmidt:
"Planning the smart city";
in: "Risø Energy Report 10", H. Larsen, L. Petersen (Hrg.); Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Denmark, 2011, ISBN: 978-87-550-3905-6, S. 13 - 16.

"The 100 years from 1950 to 2050 will be remembered for
the greatest social, cultural, economic and environmental
transformation in history - the urbanisation of humanity.
With half of us now occupying urban space, the future of
humanity is tied to the city." - Anna Tibaijuka, former UN
Today the total population of the world is around 7 billion
people, and this figure is growing by approximately 0.7% a
year. By 2009 the number of people living in cities exceeded
the number in rural areas. By 2050 world population is
expected to reach 9.1 billion, of whom almost 70% will live
in cities - implying that the urban population will grow by
approximately 1.5% a year. This rapid urbanisation creates
opportunities, but also a number of challenges to address
in the decades to come.
Opportunities exist in developing new efficient urban
infrastructures optimised in terms of economic activity,
energy consumption and environmental impacts. However,
only new and emerging cities can truly be made smart;
redesigning existing cities will always involve compromises
between existing solutions and new activities. In the following
sections we look in more detail at the idea of the
smart city and discuss a couple of examples.

Smart Cities, Low energy and sustainability, Stakeholder involvement, Examples of smart cities

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