W. Loibl, T. Tötzer, M. Köstl, S. Nabernegg, K. Steininger:
"Cities and Urban Green";
in: "Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts: Development of a Cross-Sectoral Framework and Results for Austria", K. Steininger, M. König, B. Bednar-Friedl, L. Kranzl, W. Loibl, F. Prettenthaler (Hrg.); Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 2015, ISBN: 978-3-319-12457-5, S. 323 - 348.

Cities are known to induce so called "urban heat island" effects. Therefore
climate change will have a significant impact in urban environments upon
thermal comfort. As urban green can mitigate local temperature peaks, green space
is an essential feature in cities and one option to prevent decline of thermal comfort
and related effects. Direct climate induced damages on urban green overlap with
urban environmental stressors which are judged currently to be more critical than
climate damages. Indirect climate induced damages of urban green will enforce
subsequent negative effects of local temperature increase in cities: e.g. on health,
tourism and urban economy which are difficult to delimit and quantify. The one
robust option to quantify climate change damages used in this chapter is the
preventative cost approach, i.e. damages are monetized by the level of costs that
measures would imply to prevent increasing urban heat islands (here focusing on
construction and maintenance of additional urban green).
Expansion of urban green is triggered by settlement growth that preserves
appropriate urban green shares and-potentially-by explicit policy to counter
local temperature increase in urban environments in the future. Both issues are
considered here. Green space expansion because of urban growth in Austria´s six
larger cities is assumed to reach 144 ha (4.7 %) from 2011 till 2030 and 62 ha (2 %)
from 2031 till 2050. Adapting additionally to climate change would result in more
expansion: 195 ha (6.4 %) between 2011 and 2030 and 143 ha (4.7 %) between
2031 and 2050 reaching a total of 11 % urban green growth by 2051. Annual
investment costs for new parks are estimated at 119 million euros for the period
2011-2030, and 93 million euros for 2031-2050 respectively. Annual costs for
maintaining these additional parks are estimated at 7.6 million euros till 2030 and 13.4 million euros till 2050. Such preventative costs are an approximation that can
be considered as lower bound of thermal discomfort due to climate change in the six
larger Austrian cities.

Erstellt aus der Publikationsdatenbank des AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.