W. Loibl, G. Etminan, E. Gebetsroither-Geringer, H. Neumann, S. Sanchez-Guzman:
"Characteristics of Urban Agglomerations in Different Continents: History, Patterns, Dynamics, Drivers and Trends";
in: "Urban Agglomeration", M. Ergen (Hrg.); IntechOpen, London, 2018, ISBN: 978-953-51-3898-3, S. 30 - 63.

Urban agglomerations show different development patterns and stages. Here, we describe,
discuss and compare urban agglomerations in different continents. The introduction section
gives a general overview of specific issues of urban agglomerations. Different characteristics
in Europe, Asia and America are discussed as experienced by the article´s
co-authors, living in or working for urban agglomerations in these continents. First, the
history of urbanization and agglomeration evolvement is described, then patterns, functional
structures and relations, drivers as well as social and demographic characteristics
are discussed (e.g. migration, aging, household structure, housing patterns, workplaces,
etc.). Transportation infrastructure (roads, public transport systems) is also addressed as
trigger for spatial dynamics causing certain effects (floor space, office and apartment rents
releasing urban sprawl or hyper-densification), as well as gentrification. Further topics are
urban governance and its impact on agglomeration development. Recent state and future
trends will be debated, if important. A conclusion section summarizes the comparison of
state, dynamics, drivers and trends.

urban agglomeration, trends, drivers, patterns, functions and relations

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